Although all U.S. states have a series of legal protections for employees, most illegal dismissal actions based on legal means use federal anti-discrimination laws that prohibit dismissal or refusal to hire an employee on the basis of race, skin color, religion, sex, national origin. , age or disability status. Other reasons an employer does not need to fire an employee are: other exceptions may arise from collective agreements or special protections for active military workers, adds Betsy Carroll, a Los Angeles consultant at the Employment Services Group at the law firm Davis Wright Tremaine. If you want to know if you can fire someone for no reason, “there`s a lot of gray,” she said. Although there is no explicit written contract between the employer and an individual worker, that worker can expect fixed-term or even indeterminate employment, based on the statement of a supervisor, an employer`s practice of laying off workers solely for cause, or the assertion in the worker`s manual that certain redundancy procedures are followed. The list of examples above is not exhaustive. Just because a working relationship is at will does not mean that the employee has no rights. “It`s a widespread misunderstanding,” says Aaron Tandy, partner, lawyer and head of the employment law department for Miami-based Pathman Lewis, LLP. “Just because I`m in the right place doesn`t mean you can ask me to work in an uncertain environment.” All federal, regional and local labour laws apply to an all-you-can-eat (and cause) working relationship.
However, a 2000 Thomas Miles document did not reveal any impact on total employment, but found that acceptance of the implied exception of the contract had the effect of increasing the use of temporary work by up to 15%.  David Author`s subsequent work in the mid-2000s identified several errors in the Miles methodology, found that the implied exemption from the contract reduced total employment from 0.8 to 1.6%, and confirmed the outsourcing phenomenon identified by Miles, but also found that At-Will`s unauthorized exceptions had no statistically significant influence.  The author and colleagues found later in 2007 that the good faith exception has the effect of reducing workflows and increasing labour productivity, but that overall factor productivity is decreasing.  In other words, employers forced to find “good faith” to lay off an employee tend to automate operations to avoid hiring new employees, but also to suffer from overall productivity due to increasing difficulties in laying off unproductive employees.